Types of Ancient Greek Swords (2024)

No matter how much you explore the history of ancient Greece, you will surely encounter either the hoplite spear or the Macedonian pike in various accounts. Aside from this, the Greeks are also known for their use of various swords.

These swords were said to influence much of the ancient civilization and even the designs of modern-day swords. For this reason, in this article, we will explore Greek swords, their notable characteristics, and their manner of usage. .


Yes, ancient Greece used swords for various functions but it was mostly utilized in battle as a secondary weapon.

Two main types of swords were used in these regions, distinguished by their distinct blade form. Aside from these, two more swords with intriguing stories behind it are also discussed in-depth in this section.


The Greek Kopis was a heavy sword with a single-edged, curved blade. The word "kopis" in Greek means "chopper", alluding to its primary function which is to "hack and slash" the enemy. This sword could also be used for thrusting.

The kopis is the most popular sword in Ancient Greece, said to have influenced and utilized by most of the civilization. Its use was observed even as far as Persia (modern Iran) on the east and Iberia on the west (Spain/Portugal). Here, different varieties of kopis were produced.

The most well-known type of kopis is the Iberian falcata. Meanwhile, the kukri, a Nepalese sword produced almost more than a thousand years later, was argued to be another form of kopis passed down by the army of Alexander the Great.


The xiphos was a short but durable, two-edged sword with a leaf-shaped, straight blade. The blade was always sharp on the edges, making it a perfect weapon for slashing. However, since it was short, getting enough weight and rotation to kill the enemy may be difficult.

Xiphos in Greek may correspond to the phrase "light that penetrates". This alludes to what was once the primary intention of use for the sword, which is thrusting. The sword's design supplements this function where its sharp pointy end may deal much more damage in battle.


The makhaira (also machaira) is a slightly asymmetric and curved sword, similar to the kopis. It is a shortsword used primarily for slash and hack methods.

What is interesting about this sword is that different accounts of people see it as a non-existent weapon as they consider it just another variety of the kopis. Meanwhile, some accounts perceive it as an entirely different Greek sword.


The spartan sword, although associated with the kopis, had a different structure and look. It weighs heavier and its length is shorter than that of the kopis. As implied by its name, this sword was used by Spartans. Leonidas, a Spartan leader, was one of the famous people recorded to use this in battle.

From how the sword was designed, it can be said that the limited length compensated for its sturdiness and durability. For this reason, if the Spartan warrior failed to finish off his enemy with a spear, his sword is the best next option to end the deed.

Also, according to the accounts, once an Athenian asked a Spartan why their swords were short in length, the Spartan replied that it was long enough to reach their hearts.


The ancient Hellenistic (a period where Greek culture prospered) shortswords were designed for a similar cause just like other medieval and modern swords. However, its manner of use may be slightly different.


As you may already know, ancient Greece was a place of constant warfare. These battles involved Greek city-states like Athens, Sparta, Korinth, and Thebes, to name a few. Here, battles ensued either between city-states or neighboring enemies such as the Romans and Persians.

In these battles, the sword was mostly used as a one-handed weapon. No matter the place of war, whether land or sea, a sheathed sword was a sidearm placed on either the belts or hands of the soldiers.

Although ancient Greece was very well known for its hoplite (an infantry soldier wielding a spear) formations, swords, especially the kopis, were very much used as a secondary weapon.


Aside from battle, the ancient Greeks used their swords as tools that aided their daily activities. These activities include farming, crafting and working with ropes, collecting herbs, and even chopping trees.

For these activities, the swords discussed above, especially the kopis, were favored because of their unique curvature, which makes these swords function like a knife. For this reason, sword usage in ancient Greece was flexible: from slashing at enemies to cutting down trees.


Ancient Greece is also known for their multiple gods and goddesses, deities with whom they expressed their faith. Along with this, religious practices such as ceremonies were also common. These ceremonies included either sacrificing animals or burial processions.

No matter the nature of the ceremony, the sword was most likely involved. For example, if a warrior died, he would be buried with his sword in his hands.


Although spears were much emphasized in the battles of ancient Greece, swords were also vital as they were used as secondary weapons. Aside from this, sword usage was flexible, as observed from its various functions, such as tools for daily activities like farming and gathering, and ceremonies.


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Types of Ancient Greek Swords (2024)


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